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When the Four Mamas founded API together more than 20 years ago, they dreamed of creating high-quality, safe, life-changing study abroad programs they would feel good sending their own kids on. With dedication, hard work, and a lot of love, their dream became reality. Thousands and thousands of students have chosen API to support them on their own life-changing study abroad experiences, with the Four Mamas cheering them on every step of the way. No matter who you are or where you come from, API will support you on your journey.
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Study Abroad + Options
Students who choose to study abroad in London at the internationally renowned LSE summer school will have access to an extensive range of course in such fields as accounting and finance, economics, international studies, law, and management, taught by the same leading LSE faculty who lead the academic year programs.
Additional tuition fees apply for professional applicants, i.e. those that are not currently enrolled in a U.S. university as a full-time student.
API students will participate in one of the following excursions per term (students in both terms will do two of the following excursions). These excursions are designed to help familiarize them with areas of their host city, country, and surrounding region. The following is a listing of all excursions for API London programs. Students participating in multiple program sessions will select 1-3 excursions determined by their length of program. All excursions are subject to change.
Brighton is England’s most popular coastal resort on the English Channel. In the early 19th century, George IV made Brighton his personal “playground” when he built his summer home, the Royal Pavilion, with each room lavishly and sometimes outrageously decorated in the Oriental Style. Brighton’s most well-known attraction is Palace Pier, a collection of rides, arcade games, and other amusements. Known as a place where almost anything goes, Brighton attracts artists, musicians, jet-setters, organic farmers, hipsters, and hippies side by side.
Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. The castle is notable for its long association with the British royal family and for its architecture. The original castle was built in the 11th century after the Norman invasion by William the Conqueror. Since the time of Henry I, it has been used by succeeding monarchs and it is the longest-occupied palace in Europe. Currently, more than five hundred people live and work in Windsor Castle. The Queen has increasingly used the castle as a royal palace as well as her weekend home. It is now often used for state banquets and to entertain guests on official visits.
Escape the heat of London and join us for a day at the British Seaside! Depending on the weather, activities could include water sports like surfing or kayaking or a traditional lunch of fish and chips. Students will also have some free time to explore the coastline, sun themselves on the beach, play games on the pier, or go shopping in town.
TOTAL CREDITS - 3 semester credits per session (up to 9 total)
Students who choose to study abroad in London at the internationally renowned LSE summer school will have access to an extensive range of course in such fields as accounting and finance, economics, international studies, law, and management, taught by the same leading LSE faculty who lead the academic year programs. It allows students an insight into the leading-edge thinking in each discipline. Courses are academically challenging and intellectually stimulating, as they are condensed versions of the courses offered during the semester. It is the largest summer school program in the U.K., with over 4,500 participants representing more than 100 countries and 6 continents. There is also a significant professional representation in the courses and students may find that they have representatives from the United Nations, the European Commission and leading international banks in their classes. The faculty are all experts in their fields and are actively involved in academic research and many act as advisors and consultants to companies and government bodies.
Students can choose from over 100 courses in the following disciplines at LSE:
Students can participate in one, two, or three summer sessions for 3 semester credits per session (up to 9 total). All LSE summer school students are encouraged to make full use of LSE facilities. These include the LSE library (the major UK national library of social sciences), IT Services, LSE Health Centre, school cafeterias, and LSE sports facilities.
Please note that for admission to courses that require prerequisites, it is not enough to have simply taken the prerequisite course. In most cases, students must have passed the prerequisite course with a B or higher.
LSE requires students to provide contact information for one academic reference (in addition to the letter of recommendation required on the standard API application). LSE will contact this referee directly if further information is required.
LSE LECTURE SERIES
All LSE summer students are eligible to attend the LSE Public Lecture Series at no additional cost. Speakers include internationally renowned professors and researchers. More information is available on-site.
API students will receive a transcript from the London School of Economics upon completion of their program.
Heather Lees will be your Resident Director in London and a resource for you on-site.
Anna McCole will be your Student Services Coordinator in England and a resource for you while you are abroad with us!
Carolyn Lutes will be your Program Manager and help prepare you to go abroad!
Email: [email protected]
CONTACT HOURS AND TEACHING METHODS
Summer school courses are full-time and normally consist of 54 contact hours over the three-week period, taking the form of 36 hours of lectures and 18 hours of tutorial or seminar-based classes Monday through Friday. Each course is worth 3 U.S. credits as indicated by the number in parentheses that follows each course listing on the following pages. Due to the intensive nature of the program, students are expected to spend a full day on campus. Lectures are attended by all students on the course, and take place either in the morning (10 am – 1 pm) or afternoon (2 pm – 5 pm), at the same time each day. They are supplemented by small 1.5 hour classes, during the following afternoon or morning. These are an opportunity to work through problem sets or case studies or present and discuss seminar papers. In addition, students are recommended to spend 2-3 hours per day in self-guided study.
To obtain the optimum learning experience from the course, it is essential to attend all of the lectures and classes. It is also important to do all the course reading. LSE advises students to buy the main text(s) and use the LSE Library for supplemental reading.
Purchasing textbooks is course-dependent (some courses to not require this), but some may find it is suggested. LSE suggests that students wait until they arrive before purchasing textbooks, and some may be able to get one from the library on a first-come, first-served basis. Most courses provide a printed course pack and the majority use Moodle, which allows teachers and lecturers to post readings and other assignments so that students can access the material. Most journal articles and some chapters from course texts will be available on Moodle.
Several bookstores near the LSE campus supply textbooks for LSE students.
LEVELS AND PREREQUISITES
Students will choose one course per session and will earn 3 U.S. semester credits per course
Accounting has been defined as ‘the language of business’. A knowledge of the underlying concepts of accounting, in addition to its procedures, is an essential element in the education of future managers and other professionals. Topics covered will include:
Language of Instruction: English
Recommended US semester credits: 3
Accounting information is of critical importance to capital markets. This introductory course combines practical guidance and academic theory to provide students with a thorough grounding in the use of financial statements for investment analysis and banking. It addresses the key aspects of accounting relevant to equity analysts, mergers & acquisition (M&A) bankers, asset managers and other capital market participants. The delivery of the programme will be based around short technical sessions reinforced with numerical exercises, practical case studies, press articles and video extracts. Additionally, the course will involve guest speakers, such as a sell-side analyst and an investment banker, to help students understand the various financial services roles as well as the relevance of accounting information.
Peter Drucker, the father of business consulting once famously remarked, “Because the purpose of business is to create a customer, the business enterprise has two–and only two–basic functions: marketing and innovation.” In today’s highly competitive business environment these words ring even truer: a well-designed marketing strategy can make all the difference between success and failure in the marketplace.
Marketing, ultimately, is about understanding and shaping behavior. Accordingly, banks and other financial institutions, as well as governmental, medical, and not-for-profit organizations–from those that design and sell financial products, to those that implement public policy (e.g., those dedicated to reducing drunk driving, increasing literacy, and encouraging safe contraception), have all found that a well-thought-out marketing strategy can be a critical arbiter of success even in this “ideas marketplace.”
Topics covered include:
This course will combine LSE’s premier standing in the social sciences with cutting-edge management practices. By using a wide range of quantitative as well as qualitative methods, interactive lectures, videos, hands-on exercises, and case studies, students will develop an understanding of key analytical frameworks and tools that are essential to a good marketing strategy.
This course is an introduction to the field of Strategic Management. It covers the key concepts and theories in the field and how they can be applied to real business situations.
The main objective is to learn how to formulate and implement successful strategies that grant a competitive advantage to a firm, where a strategy is a plan that guides managerial decisions. The theoretical background is founded on the “resource-based view” of the firm and its complementarity to microeconomic theory, game theory, and organizational theory.
The course is illustrated with thought-provoking case studies about real companies in various industries.
The objective of the course is to illustrate how strategic management supports companies in achieving competitive advantage. At the end of the course students should be able to:
The course introduces the fundamental principles of organizational behavior by examining psychological theories that provide insight into human behavior at work. Case studies, videos, and exercises will be used to provide students with the opportunity to apply theoretical principles to real-life organizational issues; analyze the contributions and limitations of relevant theories; and draw out the practical implications of the empirical evidence. The course aims to balance theory and practical application by focusing on theories that can be applied to organizational problems. It also aims to balance knowledge and skills through exercises that help develop skills such as leadership, decision making, enhancing influence and team working.
Illustrated below are exemplary types of questions and issues that are addressed;
The course is ideally suited to those who wish to develop a reasoned and analytical understanding of human behavior in organizations. The course will examine human processes, the individual in the organization, group dynamics and influencing others, and organizational processes and practices.
Topics covered include;
Upon completion of the course, students should be able to:
This course examines management from a range of perspectives, including economics, sociology and psychology. Students explore, through lectures and classes, major issues faced by contemporary organisations and managers.
Its content is as wide-ranging as strategy formulation, people management, culture, globalisation, innovation and leadership and is designed to appeal to students from a range of backgrounds who may be studying business or management for the first time.
Teaching will be organised around daily interactive lectures and seminars. Through engaging in-class activities participants will develop their understanding of management as well as their management skills by applying learned theories to a range of interesting scenarios and problems.
This course provides a panorama of the key analytical issues in HRM and Employment Relations, recent theories and controversies, and applies them to cases of current interest, such as the new HR challenges of the financial crisis, international supply chains, and the emergence of global labor markets. Its focus is international, drawing especially on the experience of several major OECD countries including the US, Japan, EU member states and certain emerging economies.
Topics covered are divided into two main sections:
HRM organizational perspectives
Employment relations and HRM international perspectives
Throughout the duration of this course, use will be made of international evidence and international comparisons. Case studies will be chosen to provide a feel for the diversity of different approaches to HRM and Employment Relations, and guidance will be provided as to how to interpret this.
Negotiating skills are crucial to both our professional and personal lives. People negotiate every day about issues as important as employment contracts and as trivial as which film to see with a friend. Although some level of natural ability is important, like any other skill, one’s ability to perform in negotiation is also determined by one’s formal training and experience/practice.
Note: This course is for beginners who have minimal previous experience in negotiation and have not taken any courses in negotiation. If you are already familiar with negotiation and negotiation theory, please consider taking MG300 instead.
MG209 will develop students’ skills through both formal training and practice. Specifically, this course will introduce students to the strategic, psychological, and cultural aspects of negotiations as well as practical tips gleaned from negotiation research.
This intensive three-week course covers;
This course seeks to introduce microeconomic analysis as a way of understanding the world. It exposes students to standard microeconomic theory with a focus on the development of economic intuition, whilst also providing certain economic tools that support this intuition along the way. The microeconomic mind-set helps students thinking about issues that are relevant empirically and for policy.
Topics covered will include:
One of the key outcomes of this course will be discovering when abstract models are useful and when they are not. Students will participate in class-based exercises that will enhance their understanding of these models through active engagement, rather than just passive reading or listening.
The course is aimed primarily at those who have not previously studied economics. It provides a foundation for further study in economics but is sufficiently self-contained to provide grounding for those who do not intend to take the subject any further.
The aim of this course is to give students the conceptual basis and the necessary tools for understanding modern microeconomics at an intermediate level. This course makes extensive use of calculus.
The course covers six broad areas:
The theory of the consumer explores the demand side, while the theory of the firm discusses the supply side of the economy. General equilibrium puts the two parts together and discusses welfare implications, including in the presence of externalities.
The second part of the course introduces basic concepts in non-cooperative game theory, emphasizing the strategic aspect of economic interaction. Game theory is then applied to analyze informational problems in economics, in particular problems of hidden information (adverse selection) and hidden action (moral hazard).
As a working knowledge of differential calculus is essential for the study of quantitative solutions to an economic problem, it is a pre-requisite for the course. In class on the first day of the course, partial differential calculus will be reviewed and students will be introduced to the techniques of constrained maximization, such as Lagrangian procedures, used throughout.
This course is an introduction to the theoretical and practical functioning of urban real estate markets using concepts from urban economics, finance and real estate economics.
In the first half of the course, we will cover the productive and consumption advantages of urban areas and location patterns within cities. We will see how these help determine demand for residential and commercial real estate, as well as looking at differences in supply for different types of properties. We will also discuss the impact of policy, with a special focus on taxation and urban planning.
Equipped with this framework, the second half of the course will explore how demand and supply for space determine real estate asset prices and how to measure them. We will then discuss how those measures can be used to value commercial real estate, as well as other techniques for valuation, focusing on cash-flow analysis. From there, we will explore how those valuations, financial leverage, and portfolio considerations are used to make real estate investment decisions. Finally, we will investigate the drivers of real estate cycles and emerging market trends to study their implications for investment outcomes.
This course will be particularly relevant for students interested in employment in real estate related fields in the public or private sector; or for students who are considering further education in this field.
Recommended US semester credits: 3-4
Contact Hours: 7.5
This course introduces students to the long run evolution of financial markets and to the history of monetary policy and financial crises. The course covers the two waves of the financial globalization of 1880-1914 and 1980-2008 and the de-globalization of finance that happened during the Great Depression.
A long run perspective on the 2008 financial crisis and Eurozone crisis will be provided through several historical case studies of stock market crashes, banking panics, currency crises and sovereign defaults. Finally, the course explores how central banks responded to financial crises in different historical periods and covers the main evolutions in monetary policy over the last two hundred years.
The topics covered will include:
This course is aimed at students willing to improve their understanding of money and financial markets through a historical approach. It is also highly relevant to financial market practitioners and policymakers interested in acquiring a long-run perspective on current hot issues in money, banking, and finance.
Everyone agrees that evidence-based policy is likely to be more constructive and effective than that based on dogma or fancy. The problem, for those concerned with social or economic policy, is that we seldom have the luxury of being able to undertake controlled experiments of the type conducted by natural scientists. Instead, we have to draw our inferences from the analysis of non-experimental data, and that is the function of econometrics.
This introductory course is intended to serve two constituencies:
The course is divided into two parts:
Part 1. The first part of this course introduces the statistical tool known as regression analysis applied to cross-sectional data. It begins with the use and properties of the classical linear regression model and then discusses how various technical problems should be handled. Initially, ordinary least squares are the standard technique, but eventually the focus shifts to instrumental variables estimation.
Part 2. The second part of the course discusses the application of the regression model to time series data.
Analytical depth: The material gives emphasis to the analysis of the finite sample and asymptotic properties of least squares and instrumental variables estimators, and the accompanying implications for statistical inference, under different assumptions concerning the data generation process. The derivation of asymptotic results is coupled with the use of simulation methods to establish finite-sample properties. The course contains many proofs in simple contexts.
Mathematical content: The course uses college algebra supplemented by the differential calculus at a basic undergraduate level when it is appropriate and useful. It does not use matrix algebra.
Hands-on: Examples of simple applications in economics are used throughout. Participants use Stata to fit educational attainment and wage equation models with cross-sectional data and EViews to fit demand functions with time series data. Technical support is provided.
Intuitive understanding: In addition to its technical content, the course emphasizes the development of intuitive understanding. The aim is that participants should at all times understand why the material is useful and necessary.
The objective of this course is to provide the basic knowledge of econometrics that is essential equipment for any serious economist or social scientist, to a level where the participant would be competent to continue with the study of the subject in a graduate programme.
While the course is ambitious in terms of its coverage of technical topics, equal importance is attached to the development of an intuitive understanding of the material that will allow these skills to be utilized effectively and creatively, and to give participants the foundation for understanding specialized applications through self-study with confidence when needed.
This course provides an analysis of the economic relationships between countries, covering both trade and monetary issues.
The course is split into two parts:
International macroeconomic issues
This part of the course starts out with an overview of the balance of payment accounts and open economy income identities. It then focuses on some of the key questions in open economy macroeconomics such as:
International trade theory and policy
This part of the course addresses some of the classic questions of international trade theory such as:
This course looks both at the answers of classical and new trade theory to these questions. The first part ends with an overview of recent theoretical and empirical research on the role of heterogeneous firms in international trade.
In the era of significant market turmoil institutional, as well as individual, investors look beyond traditional investment vehicles such as bonds and shares. For example, the price of gold substantially increased in 2009. The purpose of this course is to explore the world of alternative investments such as investments in hedge funds, private equity/venture capital funds, real estate, and commodities, either directly or through funds of funds. This course will combine theory with empirical exercises, allowing students to get a “hands-on” experience. Students will want to see what the return-risk characteristics of alternative investments are, what attributes to their appeal, how to understand related technical publications, and how to construct a portfolio using them.
Topics will include:
There will also be guest lectures by practitioners from the hedge fund and private equity industries.
The course will combine theory with empirical exercises, allowing students to get a hands-on experience. The course want to identify what the return-risk characteristics of alternative investments are, what attributes to their appeal, how to understand related technical publications, and how to construct a portfolio using them.
As part of class work, students will be encouraged to work with data (in Excel). Particular data work will include measuring the risks of investment portfolios, calculating the alphas of hedge fund strategies, evaluating an LBO deal, evaluating a VC deal and pricing an MBS.
This intensive course is designed to deliver a greater understanding of asset markets and corporate finance.
Part 1: Asset-markets
This section offers a unified perspective of modern valuation methods in the context of three important asset classes – fixed income, stocks, and derivatives. The course will then proceed to fixed-income securities, before moving onto stocks, starting with basic notions of risk, return, diversification, and portfolio theory. Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) will be discussed, before examining whether the market values stocks efficiently, or whether there are “abnormal” returns leading to large profits.
Part 2: Corporate Finance
These questions addressed in this part of the course can be divided into two broad sets.
Decisions regarding how to spend funds on alternative investment projects (also known as capital budgeting). Here the course will describe the alternative techniques commonly employed to assess investment opportunities.
How to raise the funds necessary to finance those investments. Firms’ decisions over debt/equity ratios will be analyzed here. This analysis will then be broadened to allow for the possibility that debt/equity choices may affect how firms are run. Incentives to adopt riskier strategies as a function of overall leverage will be considered, as will the debt overhang problem.
In general, the topics covered will include:
Students will learn about the theory and application of Financial Securities and Corporate Finance. The course broadly covers financial instruments, such as equity and fixed income and derivative securities, as well as key concepts in Corporate Finance. It will also enhance a student’s understanding of how firms choose their capital structure, conflicts between shareholders and debt holders, payout policy, and initial public offerings.
Language of Instruction: English
Language Level Required: Intermediate
The course delivers the concepts and models underlying the modern analysis and pricing of financial derivatives. The underlying philosophy of the course is to first provide the firm foundations for understanding derivatives in general.
The required technical tools will be explained carefully, allowing students to learn the language and to be able to converse with derivatives professionals. Once the tools are in place, those same tools can then be applied to any derivative. Special emphasis will be put on those derivatives that shape the modern world.
Topics covered include:
The first half of the course involves the review of the required tools, the setup of the pricing framework, the intuition of the methodology and the application of plain vanilla derivatives.
The second half of the course applies those techniques to more advanced topics: exotic derivatives, volatility modeling (including stochastic volatility, local volatility and volatility derivatives such as variance swaps) and interest-rate derivatives.
As far as mathematics goes, the student should feel comfortable with calculus, probability, and statistics at the intermediate undergraduate level. The two main mathematical tools used repeatedly in this course are the expectation (integration) of random variables and the second-order Taylor expansion (which underpins Ito’s Lemma). A prior review of such concepts would be fruitful. Prior knowledge of stochastic calculus is not required.
This course offers an intensive investigation of a central set of topics over the last century of international politics. It will introduce students to the international history of the two world wars and the Cold War as well as the post-Cold War period, but it does not attempt to cover every aspect of the years since 1914. Instead it focuses on key decisions and turning points, analysing them in depth and placing them in context. As the course progresses, students will be encouraged to make comparisons and to draw out wider themes as well as to develop their knowledge and understanding of the individual topics. The material should be readily accessible to students with little previous background in the field, as well as rewarding for those who already have familiarity with the content.
Globalisation is one of the most important dynamics of contemporary social life. The world is increasingly interconnected, and some pundits even talk of living in a ‘global village’. But what does globalization really entail? And what are the cultural forces that shape it? This course explores these key questions, largely from the vantage point of anthropology—the social science that has done the most to help us understand a culture. The course begins by considering the relationship between the culture concept and globalization since it is so often a concern with a culture that animates the debates about globalization. Is a ‘clash of civilizations’ inevitable in our globalized world? Does the emergence of a ‘global village’ spell the end of cultural difference?
As an introductory course, students need not have a background in anthropology. After considering the basic tenets of the culture concept in relation to globalisation, the lectures move on to consider a number of related topics, including economic development and transnational corporations; the influence of globalisation on tourism; the role of cultural knowledge in the ‘global war on terror’; human rights; cultural identity in a geopolitical perspective; and global media networks. There will also be a lecture on the London 2012 Olympics and globalization.
Readings for the course are organized around a set of important anthropological pieces, but also include perspectives from sociology, political science, media studies, and journalism. The readings are complemented by interactive on-line exercises as well as the discussion and analysis of the film, news clips, and other media sources. The class also takes a field trip to Tower Hamlets in London, to the areas around Brick Lane, to complement readings on migration.
From earliest times to the most contemporary ‘threats’ these questions have been posed and a variety of answers have been given. By examining the development of international political theory, from the Ancient Greeks to the present, this course will explore and criticise theories and arguments that have been offered to defend or challenge the power of political communities and explain the sources and varieties of conflict and cooperation that can occur within and beyond political communities.
The course will examine the ideas of great political thinkers from Thucydides, Machiavelli, and Hobbes to Kant, Hegel and Marx as well as the use to which these arguments have been put in the world of politics and international relations by contemporary thinkers. These thinkers and the concepts they identify and use will provide us with a window into the structures that shape many international politics such as states’ rights and international humanitarian obligations; the nature and status of international law, and the prospects for global democracy and democratization.
The course will provide both an introduction to political theory and to key approaches to international relations.
The course will examine the regional politics of the Middle East since 1918 and their interaction with problems of international security, global resources, and great power/superpower/hyperpower policies. It will aim to give students a grounding in the development of international relations of the Middle East so as to enable them to relate events to analytic issues in the study of International Relations. The course will analyze the phenomenon of political Islam by situating its emergence in the context of regional and global politics. It will also deal with more recent developments such as the 2011 Arab uprisings and their consequences.
The principal themes to be addressed will be the following:
Each of the lectures will be followed by a discussion class on a topic drawn from the lecture and readings. Active student participation is encouraged.
The ongoing conflict in Syria has ensured that genocide is once again headline news. But why do men (and women) kill? Why do they kill in large numbers? How do they kill? What, if anything, is gained by destroying, in whole or in part, a real or imagined enemy by way of genocide? And what can be done to eradicate this ‘odious scourge’ of humankind, which has claimed more than 100 million lives in the past century? In answer, this interdisciplinary course analyses the genocidal behavior of all kinds of actors – from colonialists to terrorists. Many empirical cases will be discussed, including the Americas, Australia, South West Africa, the Ottoman Empire, the Soviet Union, Germany, East Pakistan, Indonesia, Nigeria, Cambodia, Guatemala, Iraq, the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Sudan and Syria.
In the first part of the course, students will cover the origins and development of genocidal campaigns, their impact on the maintenance of international peace and security, and their consequences for the reconstruction and development of states and the building of nations, ancient and contemporary. In the second part, students will assess the prospects for preventing genocide and other mass atrocities, by analysing the role that domestic and international courts and tribunals have played in the punishment of international crimes; the development and spread of prevention norms, such as the responsibility to protect; and the creation of preventive policies by international organisations, notably the United Nations, the United States and the European Union. Although aimed at undergraduate students interested in international politics and international human rights policy and law, more advanced students from the policy-making and NGO communities are also welcome.
Urbanisation is one of the most crucial processes of change in the world today. It is also one of the most hotly debated topics across the social sciences.
The course begins with exploring the concept of the ‘urban’ in urban studies literature by examining what urbanization means to the governments, businesses, and people whose lives are affected by changes to the built environment of cities and to the ecosystems that support them. It moves on to consider urban contestations over policy, planning, and development among a wide range of stakeholders, from real estate developers to social movements to international NGOs.
This interactive course will draw on examples of urban policy and planning practices from both the global North and the South, with emphasis on Asia, Latin America and the North Atlantic. It will also include a field visit to central London.
Indicative themes include:
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
This course will introduce students to the contemporary study of international political economy, or how politics and economics interact at the global, regional and national levels. The course will highlight the major analytical frameworks in the field of IPE and how these can be applied to empirical questions concerning the structure of the global political economy, the sources and implications of globalization, the nature of international economic institutions, and national economic policy choices.
In the empirical topics, students will cover a mixture of historical and contemporary issues, including:
Each of the twelve daily sessions for the course will consist of a lecture, followed by a seminar discussion.
This course examines the evolution of American statecraft since World War II, with special emphasis on the president’s role in defining the nation’s interests. Drawing on historical and contemporary cases, we consider how international power and domestic politics have shaped presidents’ strategic priorities and how those priorities have changed over time.
This interdisciplinary course looks at international, national and local humanitarian responses to conflict and natural disasters. Building on an analysis of the causes, construction and consequences of humanitarian disasters, we consider the principles and the politics of humanitarian action; exploring the overlaps and tensions between practices of humanitarian assistance and humanitarian intervention and how humanitarian institutions shape and are shaped by global governance and state power.
We consider why humanitarian organizations and governments respond to some crises and not to others as well as the critique of humanitarian assistance and the ways in which the UN and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO)/Private Voluntary Organisations (PVO) communities have sought to professionalize their activities. We analyze the ways in which humanitarianism relates to ideas about human rights and justice, state interests and the politics of global governance and security.
This course is suitable for professionals and activists working in journalism or media-related fields as well as students from all backgrounds. Participants should have studied at least one introductory course in either political science, international relations, sociology, economics or media and communications.
This course is a unique opportunity to benefit from the LSE’s outstanding research into modern journalism combined with talks by pioneering media professionals. It is taught by leading academics, including Professor Charlie Beckett who was an award-winning senior journalist with the BBC and who runs the LSE’s international journalism think-tank, Polis. Every day there will a lecture by a senior academic who teaches the LSE’s post-graduate media and communications courses. There will also be a daily guest talk by a leading media practitioner giving students insights into contemporary cutting-edge news media. The seminars will encourage students to think and act like a journalist facing all the dramatic ethical and technological challenges of reporting the complex and dangerous world we live in.
We live in a world where information is an increasingly critical resource. The news media play a crucial role in the production and dissemination of that information. From Twitter to the New York Times, from Al Jazeera to Facebook, journalism is having an impact on our personal and political lives, and so it is vital to understand their role in the modern world.
Participants in this course will emerge with a better understanding of the shifts taking place in the practices, forms, and processes within the news media and their consequences for the role of journalism in contemporary society.
The European Union constitutes the most daring experiment in peaceful international cooperation in world history. The course will explore the origins, evolution, and impact of the European Union in the light of current debates and controversies. It will highlight the tension between ‘deepening’ and ‘widening’ and the implications of these processes on the international role of the EU. Against this background, the course examines the diverse political and economic reform pressures the EU and individual EU members currently face. Themes that will be explored in depth usually include:
The twelve daily sessions for the course will usually consist of a lecture that includes discussion, followed by a class which will allow for further small group work. Each year, we try to devote one session to a workshop with a senior figure in the EU policy process.
Introduction to English Law is an intensive course designed to introduce students to the main aspects of the English legal system and English law. The course was the first ever LSE Summer School course and over the years has attracted students from all over the world and from a wide range of backgrounds and experiences. Many participants are prospective law students, but the course is specifically designed to be of wider interest to those in or aspiring to fields such as finance, government, media, administration, and the social sciences and humanities generally.
Topics covered will include: the structure of the courts; the law-making process, including both statute and the operation of the common law system of judicial decisions; the organization of the legal profession; the elements of both civil and criminal procedure; and will review the main branches of the law:
Each year, lectures on more specialized subjects are offered, including from among the following:
The course is specifically designed to be of wider interest to those in, or aspiring to fields, such as finance, government, media, administration, and the social sciences and humanities generally, as well as prospective law students.
This course involves critical exploration of what is meant by human rights. It will investigate the possibility that the international human rights movement, together with the law that underpins it, can provide a universal ethical and legal order. There are three main areas of focus;
Theories and Histories of Human Rights
The course begins with an introductory account of the general idea of human rights and of the history of the idea from ancient Greek origins and the Enlightenment to contemporary understandings. Students will be exposed to several enduring human rights critiques and, through a series of case-studies, examine the tensions that the practice of human rights today highlights, such as in the areas of free speech, prohibiting torture, and countering terrorism.
Structures and Standards
The course then turns to assessing the structure and standards that govern international human rights law, beginning with an introduction as to what modern international law is and how it is made. This part of the course will consider the international and regional human rights systems and the range of legal instruments and standards that have been developed.
Key issues in Human Rights
Finally, this intensive course will study selected key issues in international human rights law such as:
The intended learning outcome is an informed and critical understanding of contemporary international human rights theory, law and practice.
This course provides students with an introduction to corporate law and to the legal and non-legal governance mechanisms which encourage directors to act in their company’s interests rather than their own.
The course sets corporate law and governance within its economic and business context, with particular regard to how corporate law and governance mechanisms facilitate or inhibit economic activity. The course adopts an explicitly comparative approach drawing on UK, US and continental European law.
The course provides students with an understanding of English/common law and commercial law as a whole while focusing on some particularly important aspects.
The course syllabus includes the following:
This intensive course commences with the basic common law principles governing commercial contracts, including the topic of pre-contractual duties and remedies for breach of contract.
The course then considers particular types of transactions in their commercial context including sales, credit and security, syndicated loans, derivatives, multi-party projects, and banking transactions. Aspects of commercial litigation including arbitration will also be considered. These examples are chosen to illustrate the commercial and practical problems arising in different market sectors. A consideration of these paradigms enables an exploration of a wide range of basic principles of law involving contract law, tort law, restitution, and commercial law.
The objectives of the course are that students will become familiar with these basic principles of law, so that they can apply them to a wide range of commercial transactions, in the light of the policy objectives which legal regulation pursues, and with an understanding of the context of commercial transactions in which the law operates.
The course offers an overview of the law and politics of the EU, covering the institutional, constitutional and substantive aspects of European integration. It provides an outline of the structures of the European Union, its law-making processes, and the relevant case law on free movement, citizenship, and fundamental rights. At the same time, it tackles questions about the dynamics and direction of integration, including the existential challenges posed by Brexit and the Eurozone crisis.
This course offers a cross-sectoral analysis covering financial market transactions in commercial banking, insurance, derivatives, capital markets and asset management. It allows participants to grasp the big picture of the legal underpinnings of financial transactions and to understand how risk in the financial market is entered, managed, dispersed and shifted. The course analyses and compares the legal basis of financial transactions in both Common law and Civil law jurisdictions. The focus is mainly on broad principles and policy issues rather than a detailed examination of the statute, case law and drafting in order to allow students from all jurisdictions to take home valuable knowledge directly applicable to their respective jurisdictions.
– Raising capital: taking risk
– Mitigating risk (I): personal surety and derivatives
– Mitigating risk (II): asset-backing
– Mitigating risk (III): risk reduction
– Cross-jurisdictional analysis
Who should sign up for this course?
This course is designed to be of both high academic and direct practical value. It appeals to students preparing for a career in financial markets as well as to practitioners wishing to broaden their horizon. It will be of particular interest for the
This course is a good match with LL207 International Financial Regulation, which concerns the public law side of financial markets. In combination, these courses provide the full picture of financial markets law and regulation. However, both courses are self-contained.
This course offers an introduction to comparative human and constitutional rights law. The first part introduces the students to the structure and basic doctrines of human rights law and to the nature and methodology of comparative law. The following parts cover a range of important and controversial issues in human rights law: abortion; euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide; “deviant” sexual practices; gay marriage; religion in the public sphere; hate speech and denial of the Holocaust; obscenity and blasphemy; socio-economic rights; terrorism and human rights. These topics are approached by studying and comparing judgments from various influential courts all over the world, including the U.S. Supreme Court, the Canadian Supreme Court, the South African Constitutional Court, the European Court of Human Rights, the U.K. Supreme Court, and the German Federal Constitutional Court. The courts’ decisions serve as a springboard for a critical discussion of the respective rights issue.
Life and Death
Freedom of Expression/Speech
The goals of the course are, first, to introduce the students to the jurisprudence of the above-mentioned powerful and influential courts, and, second, to enable them to think about and critically analyze some of the most controversial, difficult, and important rights issues of our time from a comparative perspective.
Consumer law regulates our daily transactions and activities, with privatization, technological advancement and related trends meaning that more of our lives are lived through consumer contracts, as distinctions blur between citizen and consumer. Consumer law also regulates an enormous field of economic activity, with household spending accounting for over 50% of GDP in most OECD economies. Key contemporary problems of economic stagnation, inequality, and political instability can all in some ways be linked to problems arising in consumer markets, which are increasingly important sites of legal and political activity and contestation.
The significance and expansive reach of Consumer Law is not matched by its coverage in typical law school curricula – this course aims to address this imbalance. The course begins by discussing key principles and theoretical ideas of consumer market regulation. It considers the nature and structure of consumer markets, examining the institutions and sources that create the ground rules of markets while asking questions as to who precisely is a ‘consumer’. The course then considers the various theories informing the regulation of consumer markets, and the various tools available to policymakers in responding to these ideas and designing market interventions. This involves questions of how consumer law is made, applied, and enforced.
The course then applies and tests these ideas in examining discrete consumer markets and areas of law, drawing on a combination of international norms and detailed examples from European, North American and English law. In addressing the regulation of consumer contract terms, it revisits fundamental assumptions of private law regarding freedom of contract. The course next considers the regulation of business marketing conduct and consumer sales contracts under the common law and English and EU legislation. Consumer safety regulation is considered through a discussion of rules on product liability and liability for the provision of services. Finally, the course turns its focus to consumer financial protection, considering principles and rules for the regulation of consumer borrowing and treatment of household over-indebtedness in a financialized economy.
A course to develop the basic mathematical tools (such as differentiation, optimization, and integration) necessary for further study in economics, finance, statistics, social sciences, engineering, and related disciplines. The techniques are taught systematically, with an emphasis on their application to economic problems.
Calculus allows us to answer many important questions in many different areas. For instance, how much should a company produce to maximize its profit? Or, if a company has to produce a specified amount, how can they minimize their costs? In this course, we will look at how this all works using a non-theoretical, methods-based approach.
This is an introductory course on probability and statistics, with examples to demonstrate their applications in the social and natural sciences.
There will be a strong emphasis on the fundamental concepts of probability theory, random variables and their distributions, sampling theory, statistical inference, and linear regression. Inferential techniques such as estimation, hypothesis testing, and regression analysis are important in the fitting and interpretation of statistical models. We will explore the mathematical background of these concepts and techniques, and demonstrate their use through practical examples and interactive experiments.
The course should be of value to anyone intending to pursue further study in statistics or any other field involving the analysis of data.
Derivative pricing, investment decisions, and financial risk management rely on stochastic models describing financial markets. In these models, quantities of interest such as the price of a financial product often need to be approximated using computational methods. This is a hands-on course in which such methods are introduced and implemented. A particular focus of the course is on Monte Carlo methods, i.e., simulation methods to approximate integrals and expectations of random variables.
Based on the binomial tree model, the fundamental ideas underlying the theory of risk-neutral pricing are introduced. In this context, expressions of options prices as suitable expectations of random variables are derived. It is then shown how these expectations can be evaluated using computational methods.
The course also develops the students’ computational skills. Indeed, each time a new computational method is introduced, students implement and apply it to relevant examples during supervised programming sessions. To enable students to do this, the course contains an introduction to programming in R and its applications in financial mathematics.
The course is largely self-contained and reviews the necessary mathematical concepts. No prior programming experience is expected.
This course analyses perspectives and techniques in accounting and financial control and considers how they are used by modern enterprises to effectively manage in competitive business environments. Its focus is on managerial decision making and the use of accounting and financial management tools under varying strategic and operational market conditions.
The course also looks at performance-based strategic management and accounting issues and considers aspects of international financial management.
This course will provide an overview of performance measurement systems and tools to improve decision-making in corporate, government, and non-profit activities. The course will identify key concepts of performance measurement and how it can be used, through means including monitoring, reporting, and contracting, to influence behavior. The insights will come from practical, real-life examples and case studies at the forefront of accounting, management, and economic research.
This course introduces the valuation techniques used by analysts – in corporate finance, equity research, fund management, and strategy consulting – in order to value stocks and firms. It shows how to use financial statements, and more generally business analysis, in order to generate expectations of future performance. It furthermore shows how the value of a stock or a firm in an efficient market reflects expectations of future performance.
More specifically, this course introduces a framework for business analysis and valuation using publicly available information, such as the information contained in financial statements, in order to develop an in-depth analysis of a firm and extract its fundamental value. Much of the course’s emphasis is on case studies.
The framework covers key analysis components such as:
Each of the topics introduced in this course covers both institutional details and results of relevant academic research. It is furthermore supported by a case study. This course should hence appeal to students interested in corporate finance, equity research, fund management, and strategy consulting.
This course takes both a short and a long-term view of the economy and aims to help students understand recent developments in macroeconomics using graphic analysis and simple algebra.
It focuses on the stylized facts of business cycle fluctuations, economic growth, and unemployment; discusses what light modern macroeconomics can shed on these facts; and finally evaluates the scope for policy to improve macroeconomic performance.
This first part of the course introduces the building blocks of the macroeconomy and provides an overview of the performance of the economy in the long-run. Topics focus on the determination of national income, the determinants of long-term economic growth, inflation and unemployment and economic pathologies such as persistent unemployment and hyperinflation
An overview of the behavior of economy in the short term. This part of the course reviews business cycle fluctuations, the design and effects of monetary and fiscal policy, budget deficits and government debt and the open economy.
The course will conclude with a review of the European Monetary Union and the Euro Crisis, and the Great Recession.
Recommended US semester credits: 3
This course considers the most important questions in economic history: How have modern societies become so rich? How has humanity shifted from a centuries-long state in which lives were brutish and short, to a situation today where people live significantly longer and are much better off? Yet, still, why are some countries rich and others poor? Why has this been the case in history, and why is it the case today?
Often, answers to these questions begin with the Industrial Revolution, but recent work across the social sciences makes it increasingly clear that the important antecedents are found further in the past. The course takes students from the Neolithic Revolution to the present day. It will focus on the deep roots of divergence, considering economic and social structures before industrialization, exploring arguments about how and why living standards and economic performance have improved markedly, while at the same time, looking at how development has diverged between different societies and across societies at the same point in time. It endeavours not just to describe these processes, but also to suggest and consider explanations for them.
This course will provide students with a clear introduction to the principles and methods of Behavioural Economics. Behavioral economics considers the ways that people are more social, more impulsive, less adept at using information, and more susceptible to psychological biases than the standard economic models assume. Students will explore key departures, and the consequences for individuals, firms, and policy.
In recent times, macroeconomic questions have once again surged to the forefront of public attention and debate.
This course aims to bring students up-to-date with modern developments in macroeconomic theory and offer fresh perspectives on the macroeconomic challenges of the day.
It is essentially structured around a series of key questions:
The approach of this course is to discuss the salient features of the data and then go on to present macroeconomic models to study these issues.
Language of Instruction: English
This course introduces the main economic aspects of the current development of the European Union (EU) and its policies. The course covers the process of European Integration and its economic impacts on individuals, firms, and regions. Special attention will be devoted to the analysis of the economic opportunities and challenges generated by economic integration, and to the assessment of the policies designed to support this process and mitigate its potential side-effects.
The course will touch on the institutional, political and historical background of European integration, though its main focus is on the economic analysis of the policies and prospects for the European Union. Some recent hot topics in the international policy agenda like rising public debt and the euro crisis will also be covered.
This course is highly relevant to students and scholars interested in expanding their knowledge of the EU and its economics, but also to policymakers and executives wanting to know more about the opportunities offered by the EU, its markets, and institutions.
Environmental economics is a comparatively young, but by now well-established, branch of economic study. In successfully applying standard microeconomic analysis to the field of the natural environment and sustainable development, economists have challenged many erroneous, but strongly held preconceptions of policy makers and environmentalists alike. For example, the course will show that the efficient level of environmental pollution is, in general, not zero and that there is no risk of running out of fossil fuel non-renewable resources anytime soon.
Conversely, however, policymakers fail to understand the fundamental drivers behind renewable resource extinction (particularly species loss), are over-optimistic when it comes to the environmental consequences of economic growth and insufficiently grasp the obstacles toward achieving strong multilateral agreements for solving international and global environmental problems.
This course aims to provide students with a sound knowledge and understanding of the major results of environmental economics. Its intention is to deliver the fundamentals of rigorous economic analysis for continued undergraduate studies at a higher level, or graduate studies in environmental economics.
Does democracy promote economic growth and welfare? What determines the size and evolution of the welfare state? Is regulation done in the interest of consumers? Is there a feasible third way between markets and governments in the delivering of public services? To answer these and many related questions it is necessary to understand the complex relationships between politics and economics.
Governments and political processes define the boundaries of economic relationships and the rules of market interactions. Moreover, governments themselves allocate resources and these allocations reflect complex political bargaining. Understanding the interaction between politics and economics can help us to gain insight into the key questions of public policymaking.
This course enhances a student’s understanding of the characteristics, determinants, and consequences of public-policy making in liberal democracies.
It provides theoretical foundations from both economics and political science, whilst developing an expansive knowledge of theoretical and applied areas of the political economy.
This course provides a broad, up-to-date introduction to the economic analysis of public policy issues. The focus of the course, which draws on microeconomic theory, is on the development of analytical tools and their application to key policy issues relating to the spending, taxing and financing activities of government. Particular emphasis is given to recent developments in public economics, including findings from current research, in areas such as behavioral public economics, new empirical methods, and policy innovations.
The course aims:
The course is divided into three parts:
Part 1. An overview of the role of Government.
Part 2. Examining the issues relating to welfare analysis, social insurance, and pensions.
Part 3. Assessing the tax policy and its impact on individuals and companies, while the final part explores the issues of privatization, outsourcing and the proper scope of government.
By the end of the course, students should be able to:
In a world composed of similar people, why is it that we live in relative comfort while about 1.4 billion people live on less than $1 a day? And, more importantly, what can be done about it?
This course will use all the skills students have developed as an economist to try and answer important economic questions. Providing an answer is hard because solving the problem of world poverty is not as simple as reallocating income. It would take $511 billion a year to increase the incomes of the poorest to just $2 a day, but calculated in 2003 the G7 countries aspire to give (but do not quite) just $142 billion a year in aid.
In short, solving world poverty requires finding places where an intervention can generate more in income than it costs. Fortunately, the economic theory that students already know tells us how to find such places. The economic model that students have learned says that if some conditions (X) are met then nothing can be done about poverty without making other people worse off. But we can flip this conclusion on its head: if X is not true, then it is possible to make someone better off without making anyone worse off, and the theory tells us how – make the world more like X. Making progress on poverty means finding out where X does not hold – i.e. where do markets fail?
The course then is detective work. Theory tells us when markets will fail and we use econometrics analysis to find these places in the real world. Finally, the course uses rigorous impact evaluation to find out whether the intervention implied by theory works. The course will teach students all the tools they need to apply this thinking, and it is the goal that students will use it to make a difference in the developing world.
This course will present an advanced treatment of econometric principles for cross-sectional, panel and time-series data sets. While concentrating on linear models, some non-linear cases will also be discussed, notably limited dependent variable models and generalized methods of moments.
The course focuses on modern econometric techniques, addressing both technical derivations and practical applications. Applications in the areas of microeconomics, macroeconomics, and finance will be considered.
The topics covered will include.
This course will provide a solid grounding in recent developments in applied micro-econometrics, including state-of-the art methods of applied econometric analysis.
The course will combine both analytical and computer-based (data) material to enable students to gain practical experience in analysing a wide variety of econometric problems. It will also discuss how modern data science approaches can be used to answer important economic questions. Students will be reading various applied economic papers which apply the techniques being taught. Applications that will be considered include labour, development, industrial organisation and finance.
The topics include analysis of matching methods, identification of average, local average and marginal treatment effects using instrumental variables, regression discontinuity, randomised control experiments, post-estimation diagnostics, cross section and panel data with static and dynamic models, binary choice models and binary classification methods in machine learning, maximum likelihood estimation, ridge regression, lasso regression, and principal component regression.
Lectures are complemented with computing exercises using real data in R or Stata.
This course is ideal for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, early-career academic researchers, and researchers in the public, private or non-profit sector.
How does the recent financial turmoil affect the economy? What are the causes of inflation and deflation? Why do some countries experience sharp swings in exchange rates? What should central banks do in such circumstances?
In order to answer these and related questions, this course provides a set of tools to analyze the interaction between monetary policy, the real economy, and the financial sector. It will combine a study of the relevant theory with applications to recent events and policy debates.
Topics to be covered include:
Industrial organization is concerned with the use of economic analysis in studying competition between firms and the evolution of market structure. Students will focus on understanding the way firms make decisions and the effects of those decisions on market outcomes like prices, quantities, the type of products offered, and social welfare.
Over the past decade, this has been one of the most exciting areas of economics, as a new generation of game-theoretic models has provided us with new ways of analyzing a range of practical issues, and addressing some long-standing empirical questions.
The topics covered in this course span a wide range of issues, from predatory pricing to cartel stability, and from the role of non-price competition to the evolution of high technology industries.
Topics covered include the following:
The theoretical models introduced in the lectures will be applied in classes devoted to case studies of specific industries and to some antitrust court cases.
Readings and class discussions will provide background and introduction to a variety of topics, many of which will be covered in lecture in greater depth. The theoretical models introduced in the lectures will be supplemented with case studies of specific industries. An introduction to Competition Policy issues will also be discussed.
The goals of the course include the development of intuition for pricing and other strategic behaviors by firms and development of skills for analysis of formal models.
It will provide the essential knowledge required to pursue the answer to fundamental questions such as: Why are markets organized the way they are? How do the ways in which a market is organized affect firms’ behavior? How does the behavior of firms affect the structure of markets and market outcomes?
The course also aims to deliver a higher level understanding of predatory pricing, cartel stability, the role of non-price competition, and the evolution of high technology industries.
This course helps to develop the relevant knowledge and understanding of risk management practices for students aiming to advance their careers in financial risk management.
The course is roughly divided into four parts:
It starts with an introduction to the classification of risk and the basic principles of diversification and hedging, optimal portfolio choice. This will include an overview of the Capital Asset Pricing Model, which is widely applied for the equilibrium pricing of risks.
Then, the class will discuss the methods to manage market risk for fixed income and equity portfolios. Students will learn about Value at Risk (VaR) and its applications to risk management practices.
Next, students are introduced to the concept of endogenous risks to demonstrate how financial risks originate within the financial system. The course will also highlight behavioral aspects of risk and discuss important limitations of current risk management practices.
Finally, the course turns to credit risk, with a focus on ratings based and structural models. Students also cover credit risk on portfolios and credit derivatives. In the final lecture, students will discuss the recent credit crisis and the ensuing regulatory responses and tie together the various parts of the course.
The objective of the course is to provide a conceptual framework for thinking about financial risk, covering both theoretical background and practical implementation. In particular, five out of twelve classes will be held in the computer lab in order to demonstrate how the material taught in the course can be used in practice.
Upon completion of the course, students will
This course helps to develop the relevant knowledge and understanding of fixed income instruments and interest rate models for students aiming for a career in the fixed income field. The course will provide an overview of the major institutions, organizations and investors, and the recent developments in fixed income, covering both theoretical background and practical implementation.
In this course, students will discuss traditional debt instruments (namely government and corporate bonds) and fixed income derivatives (including mortgage-backed securities), develop the theory for valuing them and study the determinants of risk and return of fixed-income securities. Students will also cover the most important state-of-the-art interest rate models, develop their theoretical underpinnings and provide examples for practical implementation. Students will also discuss the role of fixed-income securities in risk management and introduce the concepts of duration and convexity.
The course will closely look at the interdependencies and the roles of the different players in the debt markets. In particular, students will examine the role of, and the instruments available to the central bank in setting interest rates. The major focus of the course will be on economic intuition and on understanding the products and interrelationships in the fixed income markets. Students will have the opportunity to directly implement the concepts as eight out of twelve classes will be held in the computer lab. Finally, students will relate the course topics to the credit crisis of 2007-2009 and discuss implications for the future of debt markets.
This course is about the characteristics of financial markets and optimal investment strategies. Its aim is to provide a thorough understanding of both the mechanics and the operations of financial markets, whilst paying particular attention to the trading and evaluation of securities in equity and bond markets.
During this intensive course, students will focus on asset pricing, active portfolio management and risk immunization, portfolio performance evaluation, the predictability of returns, dynamic trading strategies, and behavioral finance. Consideration will also be given to recent developments in both the theory and practice of cross-sectional asset pricing and the evaluation of risky securities.
This course focuses on theoretical issues which arise in modern corporate finance, and its major theme will be the firm’s capital structure and pay-out decision.
The coruse will see that under certain assumptions, this decision is irrelevant; this is the Modigliani and Miller Theorem. These assumptions will then be loosened to see when it may be better for firms to issue debt versus equity, or to repurchase shares rather than pay out dividends.
In the final part of the course, students will learn about real options and apply this to study the optimal policy of a firm raising capital to finance risky investment.
This course is a broad overview of major topics in Corporate Finance. Students are assumed to have seen many of the topics in earlier courses; however, this course provides more in-depth coverage. The topic of capital structure is covered in FM250 Finance. However, FM250 provides only a brief overview. Advanced Corporate Finance will build on that by taking the decisions of the firm as the main topic. Students will spend significant amounts of time on topics beyond the scope of FM250, such as taxes, bankruptcy, private information, signaling, and real options.
This intensive course takes a historical approach to examining a series of pivotal transitions in the shaping of the global order across the last several centuries. Focusing on some of the world’s most influential thinkers and leaders; from Smith to Keynes; from Napoleon to Churchill and beyond; the course explores the new ideas that ascended, the leaders that defined these orders, and the interaction between the two.
A number of important questions will be examined and addressed, including;
This course considers an international order from the standpoint of both international security and international political economy. It presumes no experience in either field or the social sciences more generally. As such, it is ideal for students who want a rigorous introduction to international politics. It will also appeal to students who want to delve deeper into the history and evolution of the international system.
The course is divided into six modules:
1. War Economies
3. The World at War: Reordering International Politics
4. Cold Warriors
5. Competing Development Models
6. Neoconservatives and the War on Terror
While some familiarity with these figures and topics is valuable, the course assumes no prior expertise or training. Students, however, should appreciate that the course will challenge them to engage a variety of materials across a range of substantive issue areas–all of which is rich but much of which is challenging.
By the end of this course, students should have:
Is ‘child labor’ always exploitative? Can modern schooling be harmful as well as helpful? Are there universals in cognitive development that override cultural traditions of childrearing? This course examines childhood in historical and social context, exploring the implications, for human development, of radically different understandings of child-care, child competencies, and education.
The aim of this multidisciplinary course is threefold. Firstly, to explore and understand the implications of seeing childhood as a cultural construct; secondly, to investigate how different notions of childhood make a difference to actual children’s development; and thirdly, to explore the modern understanding of ‘child rights’ and its influence – both positive and negative – on children’s lives.
Through a variety of social-scientific materials (anthropology, psychology, history, sociology), the course will examine alternative understandings of childhood that can be found in space and time. What difference do these different understandings make to processes of cognitive development? Are there any universals of human development or parenting that can be discerned amidst this cultural diversity? What are the political and social implications for children’s everyday lives of particular ways of seeing and treating children? In addition to the course readings, students will view and analyze films and will visit London’s Museum of Childhood.
At the end of this course, students should be able to:
This course introduces students to the complex and conflictual relationship between democracy and capitalism in the advanced market economies (North America, Europe, Australasia and Japan). The focus of the course is on the different ways in which democratic states have sought to promote economic growth and redistribute resources in favor of different political interests. The course presents some key concepts and theories of comparative political economy and uses them to compare institutions, policies, and outcomes across countries and over time.
The aim is to understand why some advanced countries have grown faster than others, why some are less equal than others, why countries have addressed common international pressures in such different ways, and how they have responded to the current crisis. Key areas of inquiry include the growth of the public sector, the structure of the welfare state, the role of electoral and party politics, the politics of monetary and fiscal policy, the distribution of income and capital, and the consequences of the current crisis.
Recommended US semester credits: 3
This course examines the key concepts and schools of thought in the study of foreign policy. Concentrating on the process of decision making, internal and external factors which influence foreign policy and the instruments available to foreign policy decision-makers, the course will provide an understanding of the role and effect that foreign policy has on international politics. Students will learn about the different strategies that great powers and small states employ in achieving their aims; the foreign policy challenges posed by terrorism, rogue and failed states; and the significance of new foreign policy powers like China. The classes will combine a discussion of these theories with their application to selected countries in the North, and South, international organizations and transnational actors.
The principal themes to be addressed by the course are:
Each of the lectures will be followed by a discussion seminar on a topic drawn from the lecture and readings. Active student participation is encouraged.
This course provides an introduction to human cognition and behaviour, addressing foundational topics in psychological science. These foundational topics include key concepts such as evolution, genetics, neuroscience, and culture, and specific topics, such as perception, memory, cognition, decision-making, child development, psychopathology, personality, intelligence, emotion, attraction, cross-cultural differences, prejudice, norms, attitudes, social learning, social influence, and group processes.
Uniquely, the course will offer an integrated perspective on these topics, investigating the evolution and variation in human psychology over time, across cultures, and over the lifespan. The course will introduce the history of the study of humans and human psychology, offering students the historical context to trends in research.
The course begins with some historical context, some philosophy of science, links to other fields, and events in history that help students contextualize their learning. With this context in place, students are introduced to a theoretical framework grounded in evolutionary biology for organizing their knowledge, so that what they learn is less a series of disconnected topics and more a natural expansion from the individual brain, to individuals in society, to societal level processes. The course then brings it back together, with links to real-world issues throughout.
Some of the most complex problems in global politics exist at the nexus between international trade, development, and environment. While globalization has made countries ever more interdependent, the capacity of the international system to deal with global challenges remains limited. A wide range of global problems still awaits effective international solutions – from the depletion of natural resources and global climate change to the creation of an effective and fair trading system and the promotion of economic development.
This course examines the global politics of trade, development and the environment, against the background of continued economic globalization and the emergence of new forms of global governance. Using historical reflection, conceptual discussion, and in-depth case studies, the course aims to promote a better understanding of how we can reconcile the competing objectives of free trade, environmental sustainability, and poverty alleviation.
The course is divided into three parts: the first part introduces the theory and history of trade policy, economic development, and environmental protection. The second part investigates the ways in which key actors in global politics – states, NGOs, global corporations and international organizations – are shaping outcomes in international policy-making. The final part examines the potential for effective global governance in selected case-studies: the global politics of climate change; the clash between intellectual property rights and access to essential medicines in the developing world; and the international trade conflict over genetically modified (GM) food.
How do films, television, music and new media impact on and shape the lives and politics of diverse groups of citizens and, in turn, what role do they play in urban, regional and global processes of cultural change? Is new media being used to build up or break down social and community ties? Global Communications, Citizens, and Cultural Politics explores the role of media and communications in relation to identity, citizenship, culture, and conflict. The course is framed within lively debates over popular culture, nationalism, imperialism, and globalization. Examples used to encompass the role of films in society, celebrity politicians, cities as technology hubs, and changes in interpersonal and political relationships through social networking. The course is organized into two thematic units.
(i) An accessible introduction to key issues and tensions among prominent strands of communication research, focusing on media institutions, texts and audiences, and texts in context. As well as introducing students to interesting theoretical and research perspectives, this section of the course will encourage an examination of the intersection of the themes of media, globalization, and citizenship. For instance, the class will look at how media – such as films, advertisements, and websites – represent issues such as poverty, migration, gender, and nationalism. The class will also ask questions about the ways in which different audiences respond to these representations.
(ii) A more focused examination of the ways in which organizations, civic groups, politicians and individuals based in cities or ‘imagined communities’ across the globe, utilize and participate in media to negotiate access to power and identity. Students will examine prominent elements of urban culture, such as technological, music and game cultures, which shape and mediate processes of identity formation at urban, national and transnational levels, while at the same time examining the use of old and new media in political campaigns.
The course neatly illustrates critical theoretical, methodological and policy-relevant considerations which will be extremely useful to those wishing for a better understanding of the changing relationships between media, citizens and learning in a globalizing world. Lectures and seminars by LSE staff are supplemented with talks by reputed media researchers and practitioners.
International organizations are created and expected to provide solutions whenever governments face transnational challenges, such as international and civil wars, humanitarian emergencies, flows of refugees, outbreaks of infectious diseases, climate change, financial market instability, sovereign debt crises, trade protectionism, and the development of poorer countries. But their role in world politics is controversial. Some perceive them as effective and legitimate alternatives to unilateral state policies. Others regard them as fig leaves for the exercise of power by dominant states. Others yet are regularly disappointed by the gap between the lofty aspirations and their actual performance in addressing global problems and want to know the causes of that gap. While some commentators tend to lump all international organizations together, in reality, the functioning, power, and effectiveness of international organizations differ widely – across organizations, issues, regions, and over time.
A key aim of the course is to understand these differences and their implications for the solution of transnational problems. The course is designed for students interested in becoming – and professionals who already are – officials in international organizations and governments, journalists, critical citizens, scholars, decision-makers in companies, NGOs and the increasing range of careers that involve frequent interaction with international organizations, and critical citizens. The aim of the course is to provide them with a comprehensive toolbox that will allow them to perform sophisticated analyses of international organizations and the opportunity to see these analytical tools applied to several of the most important international organizations operating today, such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the World Bank, the World Health Organization and the International Criminal Court.
The course will start by introducing the central analytical approaches that help us to understand key aspects of international organizations: their creation and design, their decision-making processes, their impact and policy effectiveness, and their interactions with other international organizations. This analytical toolbox is then used to explain the role of the main international institutions in specific policy domains, including security, human rights, trade, finance, health, environment, migration and workers rights.
For each of those domains, the course will analyse the construction of global policy problems, the creation or selection of international organisations aimed at addressing them, the way in which policies are negotiated and decided within those institutions (with special attention to the exercise of various forms of power), the impact of the institutions on the behaviour of states and other actors, and their ability to solve the problems that motivated their creation. Students will complete the course with a deeper understanding of both similarities and differences between international organizations and of their effective contribution to the governance of global issues.
At the beginning of the new century, the world stood on the cusp of what most experts assumed would be a golden age of international peace and global prosperity guaranteed by American power and underwritten by an ever-expanding world market dominated by the West. But what Time magazine defined as a ‘decade from hell’ followed, leaving Europe in tatters, the United States in decline, and the balance of power rapidly shifting southwards towards the ‘rest’ and eastwards towards China. A very different kind of world now beckoned – more economically balanced and fair according to Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs who coined the term BRICs to characterize the emerging order; but less under the control of the West according to many analysts. Indeed, many pundits now began to talk quite openly of a new world disorder with unresolved tensions in the Middle East, domestic stress in Europe, and new conflicts in Asia, making the international system an altogether less certain place. But how has this come about? Why have the major western powers proven so incapable of dealing with some of its more significant challenges? And where is the world heading? Just over ten years later and the same experts are predicting a very different kind of future. These are at least some of the big questions students will be seeking to answer in this intensive three-week program.
The course is designed with several different audiences in mind: undergraduate students looking for an expert guide through contemporary international issues; policy-makers at all levels seeking an in-depth survey of the main challenges facing the world today; those from any of the major social science disciplines who take the ‘global’ seriously; members of international organisations and NGOs; and anybody with a keen interest in international affairs who wishes to deepen his or her understanding of world issues.
Instruction will comprise daily lectures and seminars. There will be five lectures in week one, five lectures in week two, and two lectures in week three. There will be a revision day in the third week. Professor Michael Cox is joined by guest lectures from noted LSE experts, including Professor Margot Light, Dr. Nicholas Kitchen, and Dr. Luca Tardelli.
The course will offer a multidisciplinary approach to the topical subject of international migration, its causes, and consequences, and the challenges it presents to policymakers. Popular myths about migrants and migration will be challenged as the course addresses the highly-charged issues of immigration control and migrant integration. The role of employers, governments, and international organizations such as the European Union will be analyzed as the course reviews current policy responses to immigration.
Questions examined in the course include:
The course is divided into three parts. Part A focuses on the politics of international migration management and migration control policies on both economic migration (including irregular migration and human trafficking) and forced migration (covering asylum-seekers and refugees). Part B provides contemporary sociological perspectives on migrant inclusion, including theories of labor market incorporation; ‘assimilation’ and social integration; multiculturalism, religion, and the ‘second generation’. A final part C addresses some ethical and normative issues of immigration.
While a familiarity with these issues is valuable, the course assumes no specific expertise or training.
Since the turn of the 21st century, we have come to take for granted that Islam is a major force in world politics. But this state of affairs is of recent vintage and its origins and prospects for the future remain in question. Today there is still much more oversimplification and exaggeration than serious understanding and systematic analysis of when, where, how, and with what consequences Islam has become politicized and politics has become Islamicized across different parts of the world.
Against this backdrop, this course covers key questions, arguments, and debates concerning the intersection of Islam and politics today. Overall, the goal of the course is to help students to strengthen their knowledge and analytical tools to understand and explain the diverse ways in which Islam has operated as a force in politics in different parts of the world.
The course focuses on a number of key questions:
The course begins by raising questions about the distinctiveness of Islam as a world religion in the public sphere and the political realm, and then briefly uses the Hajj as an example and source of insight for suggesting important continuities and changes within the faith in recent history. Subsequent lectures then chronicle the shifting position of Islam in world politics over key periods and developments in recent global history:
Thereafter, the course focuses on the period stretching from the end of the Cold War to the present day. A series of lectures provides a broad context and examines alternative perspectives on – and explanations for – the rise of Islam in world politics:
The remainder of the course focuses on the diverse intersections of Islam and politics in different parts of the world:
Revolutions have played a central role in the making of the modern world. From the revolutions in France, America and Haiti in the late 18th century to those in North Africa and the Middle East in 2011, revolutions have been central to debates about war and peace, justice and order, intervention and sovereignty, and more.
This course explores both the theory and practice of revolutions, teasing out their effects and examining the prospects for revolutionary change in the contemporary world.
During the course, students will learn how to make informed judgments about how revolutions have impacted on core features of the international system. Key questions we will discuss include:
This course is an introduction to International Development. It examines the politics and the institutional framework for social and economic development. For developing countries, the national and international contexts interact to set constraints on development and determine possible avenues of growth. Specific issues like economic growth, international debt, aid, poverty, and environment are increasingly a matter of negotiation amongst domestic interest groups and interaction between government and international institutions.
The course will also look at the impact of economic globalization, international trade, and the emerging role of civil society and international investment in development. The inter-connection between economic development and social and political issues like democratization, governance, poverty, human rights, gender, famine, environmental issues, climate change and armed conflict is examined, as well as the role of international organizations such as the World Bank, the United Nations, and the World Trade Organization.
How can we design, build and sustain ‘democracies’ in places that have been engaged in sustained conflict? This course will explore societies torn apart by political violence and ethnic conflict. The main purpose is to diagnose the central problems, and examine what political responses are most appropriate.
The first part of the course mostly looks at the problems. The course begins with an examination of Iraq (Case Study 1: Iraq) as an example of armed intervention and regime change (themes include the politics of intervention, mass violence, constitution building and power-sharing, and the rise (and fall?) of Islamic State. More generally, students will examine the micro-foundations of nationalism, grievances, and conflict. Since the end of the cold war, almost all wars are ‘civil wars’ so the course will consider what causes civil wars, what sustains them, why some last much longer than others, and how do they end? The course will exam civil wars both in a comparative manner and also by means of Case Study 2: Multiple Civil Wars in Sudan and South Sudan. There will also be a focus on the strategies of terrorism and suicide terrorism.
The second part of the course shifts the focus of attention to ‘solutions’ and policy responses to divided societies and failing states. Informed responses might include intervention, mediation, and peace agreements; power-sharing and constitutional design (including Case Study 3; Northern Ireland); territorial management of conflict; and transitional justice (including Case Study 4: South Africa and East Timor).
The course will look at which are the most appropriate electoral systems for divided places (and which should be avoided). The timing of ‘first elections’ after civil wars might also be important because they are risky: should they be held early to legitimize the peace, or delayed until state institutions have been rebuilt? Students also examine the growth in electoral and competitive authoritarianism: more and more regimes hold semi-competitive elections that are not truly democratic. Why do they do this? This leads into Case Study 5: Elections in Kenya.
The course comes to an end by analyzing the ‘Arab Springs’ and the resilience of authoritarianism in the Middle East (including Case Study 6: compare Egypt and Tunisia).
How do politics and institutions shape public policy? How and why does policy change? How does bureaucracy work (or not), and how might it be reformed? This course addresses these questions using theories and methods of public policy analysis, with a global scope.
This course is an introduction to theories, approaches, and methods for public policy analysis. These include how politics and institutions shape public policy, the processes of public policy change, and the challenges of public sector management. The scope of the course is global, with applications and examples from countries around the world.
The course will introduce students to fundamental social-scientific concepts like power, collective action, institutions, and accountability, as well as tools useful for evaluating policy impact and effectiveness. The course will enable students to understand the tradeoffs involved in the design of policies and institutions; the influence of factors like partisanship, policy ideas, information technology, and globalization; as well as reforms that attempt to improve government efficiency, representation, and transparency. The course will also give students the conceptual tools to be able to analyze specific policy issue areas of their interest, and understand the complex forces that shape policy change.
Protests in cities and squares around the world; #Occupy; parallel climate summits; the Fair Trade movement; Al Qaeda; Save Darfur; Davos and Porto Alegre; WikiLeaks and Twitter – bottom-up forces are rapidly changing the face of global politics, which today involves much more than states and international institutions. But who are the actors driving global change and what are their roles in global politics? How do they come together and what is their power? What is the role of the media and new technologies in protest and change? And, crucially, what are the implications for global democracy and global justice?
This course is unique in its bottom-up approach to the study of politics and social change, emphasizing the role of human agency and activism in the process of globalization. Lectures in the course focus on specific issues ranging from political consumerism, new media and forms of protest, to the anti-capitalist movement and the ‘war on terror’. The role of key global actors will be explored, including social movements and NGOs, nationalist and religious movements, the global media, global summits, and institutions such as the International Criminal Court and the World Bank. The course offers a unique opportunity for students to engage with some of the leading scholars in the study of globalization and with activists and practitioners driving global change.
This is an intermediate level course and requires some basic knowledge in areas of politics, development, law, or international relations. It is particularly useful for students with a first degree, advanced undergraduates or those with practical experience in NGOs, multinational corporations or international organizations.
The overall purpose of the course is to engage students in international affairs through the study of the legal frameworks which govern them, while at the same time situating that legal framework within the material and cultural conditions of international politics.
The course will cover a selection of contemporary issues drawn from the following issue areas:
The course is not restricted to those with a background in law and typically draws students with an interest in international relations, global politics, and global economic relations, as well as law. However, a familiarity with legal terminology is an advantage.
Students will be given a solid grounding in the foundations of the international legal order. However, the course will be problem-based, rather than doctrinal, and will focus on controversial and challenging issues in contemporary international politics – including the recent examples of the use of force, international economic integration, international criminal law and the promotion and protection of human rights.
The course offers an introduction to tax policy using a wide range of policy perspectives, drawing on ideas from political theory, economics, and sociology as well as law.
Everyone thinks they know what’s wrong with the tax system: The rich pay too much (or too little) tax. It’s grossly unfair (or absolutely right) to tax inheritances. Taxes stifle innovation, or they fund the infrastructure needed for businesses to grow. They distort behavior, or they provide important incentives. Why should people pay taxes for services they don’t use, or give away their earnings to people who don’t work? But, what would it be like to live in a society with no taxes? And so on.
The aim of this course is to navigate these popular arguments about tax policy and relate them to their academic roots: in political theory, economics, sociology, and law (amongst others). Tax policy is often regarded as the exclusive domain of economists. But any ‘all-things-considered’ judgment about how to design a tax system must rely on more than just efficiency and incentives (although these are also important). To understand, let alone to influence, real-world debates about tax policy as they appear in newspapers or in government, a range of academic approaches is required.
The course will equip students with an introductory toolkit for explaining and evaluating current and proposed tax policies. The main examples will be taken from the UK and US tax systems, but the insights generated are truly global. The course will provide an academically-rigorous introduction to tax policy that would prepare students for further study of tax at undergraduate or masters level. It could also be taken as a ‘general interest’ course and would be useful to anyone aspiring to work in public policy, political journalism or government.
The course would provide a useful complement for students thinking of proceeding to the 200-level course in Tax Avoidance and the Law.
Competition law involves, essentially, the use of legal tools to control the exercise of market power by economic actors, in order to protect the competitive forces within the market. The competition rules present a powerful set of tools for public enforcement agencies—and, indeed, private litigants—to prevent and sanction harmful instances of private power.
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the structure and substance of the EU competition rules, examining both the current legal framework and the underlying competition policy considerations which have informed its application and development.
At its core, the EU competition framework incorporates three key provisions:
EU competition law is, moreover, enforced under a distinctive and multi-faceted system which involves centralized enforcement by the European Commission, decentralized enforcement by the national competition authorities of the Member States, and a growing emphasis on private enforcement via antitrust damages actions brought by ‘private attorneys general’.
This course aims to provide participants with a comprehensive understanding of the core rules and principles that underpin the EU competition system, alongside broader competition policy considerations. It does so through a systematic examination and assessment of each of these three areas of substantive competition law, as well as an exploration of the enforcement context plus the wider policy landscape. Although the course focuses primarily on the competition rules of the EU, comparative analysis to other jurisdictions—particularly the US—will be made where appropriate.
Throughout the course, an emphasis is placed upon the crucial, and often controversial, the question as to whether and when competition law should be deployed to control private power within the market and society more generally. The course thus aims to equip participants with both a strong technical knowledge of EU competition law and the ability to engage with and critique issues of competition policy.
This course offers a concise introduction to the legal challenges relating to the international dimension of litigating commercial disputes, both before state courts and in arbitration. London is one of the most important centers for commercial litigation and arbitration in the world. The course focuses on the relevant English and European Union law, invoking experiences from other jurisdictions where useful. The course is divided into two parts. The first part covers the issues arising in international litigation concerning:
The second part treats international arbitration with a focus on:
Special attention will be given to the means of anticipating problems in contractual stipulations such as jurisdictional clauses, choice-of-law clauses, and arbitration clauses.
This course covers a selection of topics in the field of Information Technology and the Law (or Cyberlaw). It will begin by considering the debate about the nature of the influence of information technology upon the development of new legal doctrine, moving on to consider, through topics such as data protection, computer misuse and computer evidence, copyright and digital rights management, criminal content liability and defamation, both how the law has responded to the challenges of information technologies, and the extent to which legal issues have shaped the development of information society policy.
The focus will be initially on English law, although the global nature of IT law means that there is strong EU, Commonwealth, and US legal influence upon the English system, so comparative aspects will be introduced, and readings will include materials drawn from, amongst others, US law journals.
This course does not require an in-depth understanding of information technology – rather, it is primarily interested in the implications of the use of information technology, and the intended and unintended consequences of regulating that use.
Language of Instruction: English
This course uses the financial crisis of 2007-2010 as a starting point to explore the challenges of regulating global financial markets. The course is internationally oriented and draws on the rules set by the global regulatory committees (Financial Stability Board, Basel, etc.) and on European post-crisis regulation, with a few digressions and comparisons with the American regulatory debate, without focusing on details on any specific jurisdiction.
The essential purpose of the course is, first, to analyze some of the main techniques of financial regulation and to explore their rationales and dynamics from a number of disciplinary perspectives. Second, this course addresses seven policy areas in more detail that have all been substantially reinforced after the financial crisis and are that considered to the hottest topics in regulation.
Specific Policy Areas:
The course is a good match with LL206 International Financial Law, which concerns the commercial law side of financial markets, together the courses provide the full picture of financial markets law and regulation. However, participation in LL206 is not a formal prerequisite for taking LL207.
This course examines the legal and administrative regulation of the media and the rights framework within which media practice occurs. It focuses on three areas or ‘blocks’: the regulation of published content to protect private interests; the regulation of published content in defence of public interests, and the control of pre-publication newsgathering practices. The course uses English law and regulation (as informed by European human rights law) as the default teaching vehicle, but at all stages interrogates and compares equivalent laws in North American, European, and other comparable jurisdictions. The course, first, introduces two underpinning themes: the media landscape and the main social, technological and regulatory influences shaping its development, and the protection of freedom of expression and freedom of the press in national and international law. It then proceeds to review potential restrictions on these values that are aimed at promoting or preserving the specific private and/or public interests. This analysis is undertaken in three blocks of study: 1) The regulation of content to protect private interests. This involves a focus on the personal interests in privacy, confidentiality and reputation, and includes consideration of the torts of defamation and misuse of private information. 2) The regulation of content in the public interest. This involves a focus on prejudice to legal proceedings through media publicity, the publishing of offensive content, publication of sensitive material affecting national security, and concerns with political impartiality. It includes consideration of the law of contempt, blasphemy and related public order offences, official secrets and terrorism legislation, and broadcasting bans on certain forms of speech. 3) The regulation of newsgathering practices. This involves consideration of the use of harassing, deceptive and surreptitious methods by journalists (for example, door-stepping, phone-hacking and undercover reporting), the protection of journalists’ sources, and access to state-held information (freedom of information and open justice).
This course provides a comprehensive overview of the phenomenon of tax avoidance and of the attempts by states to combat it: both unilaterally and multilaterally.
Taxpayers have always sought to minimise their tax burden. However recent decades have witnessed a sharp rise in popular and governmental concern with tax shelters and other tax avoidance. Traditional strategies of tax avoidance have included postponement of taxes and tax arbitrage, in addition to attempting to exploit ‘loopholes’ through a formalist interpretation of legislation. In recent years the proliferation of complex financial instruments has increased the opportunities for such avoidance. Additionally, globalization and the development of the digital economy have facilitated tax avoidance strategies of base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS). This rise in opportunities for tax avoidance has been accompanied by an increased public concern that individuals and companies pay their ‘fair share’ of taxation: which states have responded to both through unilateral and multilateral actions (including the OECD’s project on BEPS and the EU’s Anti Tax Avoidance Package).
The course will adopt a multi-disciplinary approach. So in addition to a legal and public policy analysis, the course will also draw on accessible social-science literature: developing students’ abilities to be sophisticated consumers of social science research. Whilst using examples predominantly from the UK and USA the issues addressed by the course are general across many jurisdictions and so will be applicable to those with interests beyond the UK and USA.
This course is designed to be of both high academic rigor: but would also be of direct practical value to those working (or aspiring to work) in public policy or the private sector. Thus addition to appealing to students with a public policy interest, it appeals to students preparing for a career in taxation (either in private practice or working for the state) as well as to practitioners wishing to broaden their horizon.
Specific topics covered will include:
By the end of the course, students will be able to:
The course examines, from a legal perspective, the rules, concepts, principles, institutional architecture, and enforcement of what we call international criminal law or international criminal justice, or, sometimes, the law of war crimes. The focus of the course is the area of international criminal law concerned with traditional “war crimes” and, in particular, four of the core crimes set out in the Rome Statute (war crimes, torture as a crime against humanity, genocide, and aggression). It adopts an institutional (Nuremberg, Rwanda, the Former Yugoslavia), philosophical (Arendt, Shklar) and practical (the ICC) focus throughout. There will be a particular focus on war crimes trials and proceedings e.g. Eichmann, Milosevic, Pinochet and Goering et al.
Language of Instruction: English
Consumer law regulates our daily transactions and activities, with privatization, technological advancement and related trends meaning that more of our lives are lived through consumer contracts, as distinctions blur between citizen and consumer.Consumer law also regulates an enormous field of economic activity, with household spending accounting for over 50% of GDP in most OECD economies. Key contemporary problems of economic stagnation, inequality, and political instability can all in some ways be linked to problems arising in consumer markets, which are increasingly important sites of legal and political activity and contestation.
The course then applies and tests these ideas in examining discrete consumer markets and areas of law, drawing on a combination of international norms and detailed examples from European, North American and English law. In addressing the regulation of consumer contract terms, it revisits fundamental assumptions of private law regarding freedom of contract. The course next considers the regulation of business marketing conduct and consumer sales contracts under the common law and English and EU legislation. Consumer safety regulation is considered through a discussion of rules on product liability and liability for the provision of services. Finally, the course turns its focus to consumer financial protection, considering principles and rules for the regulation of consumer borrowing and treatment of household over-indebtedness in a financialised economy.
This course examines the legal aspects of corporate finance.
In this module we will analyse the legal aspects of corporate finance. There are three primary components of this module. The first component is an introduction to corporate finance theory, which covers the nature of equity and debt as well as an introduction to theories of capital structure and valuation. The second part of the module covers the nature and regulation of legal capital, including minimum capital and the regulation of dividends and share buy-backs. The third part of the module addresses the issuance of debt and equity, related aspects of securities regulation, such as insider trading and disclosure regulation, as well as mergers & acquisitions.
The module’s primary focus is on UK and EU law and regulation. However, the module will also draw on the approaches to regulation in other jurisdictions, such as the United States and Germany.
This course provides a precise and accurate treatment of probability, distribution theory and statistical inference.
As such there will be a strong emphasis on mathematical statistics as important discrete and continuous probability distributions are covered (such as the Binomial, Poisson, Uniform, Exponential and Normal distributions). Properties of these distributions will be investigated including the use of the moment generating function.
Point estimation techniques are discussed including the method of moments, maximum likelihood, and least squares estimation. Statistical hypothesis testing and confidence interval construction follow, along with non-parametric and goodness-of-fit tests and contingency tables. A treatment of linear regression models, featuring the interpretation of computer-generated regression output and implications for prediction, rounds off the course.
Collectively, these topics provide a solid training in statistical analysis. As such, this course would be of value to those intending to pursue further study in statistics, econometrics and/or empirical economics. Indeed, the quantitative skills developed by the course are readily applicable to all fields involving real data analysis.
The aim of this course is to impart knowledge and develop an understanding of optimization theory. Although the emphasis is placed on problems of optimal investment and consumption, the techniques developed are applicable to problems arising in economics and several other areas.
What is the best composition of assets in a portfolio? What is the minimal amount of fuel needed to launch a spacecraft to orbit? How much daily exercise is optimal? These seemingly unrelated questions have one thing in common: to answer them one has to optimize. Optimization permeates our daily life, and the ability to act optimally distinguishes success from failure. This is especially true in the world of finance, where bankruptcy may be the result of wrong investment decisions.
The course explores theoretical and numerical approaches to solving static constrained and unconstrained as well as dynamic optimization problems. The theory covered is exemplified by applications such as the Markowitz portfolio selection problem and the Merton optimal investment problem. To introduce the optimal investment problem, the multi-period binomial tree model for a financial market is introduced and the concepts of arbitrage and self-financing portfolios are discussed.
The course is relevant to students pursuing a degree in a quantitative subject who are interested in finance, as well as to students majoring in finance or economics who want to hone their quantitative skills. The course is largely self-contained and the relevant mathematical background, such as elementary probability theory and property of functions will be thoroughly reviewed.
One of the most important tools for researchers is the survey. Our evidence is often based on surveys, and the quality of this evidence depends upon survey design, data collection, and analysis.
This course will provide participants with a comprehensive understanding of survey research methods. It will focus on all aspects of the survey research process, from the design of surveys prior to data collection, up to and including the analysis of survey data and reporting of results.
Surveys allow researchers to measure attitudes, behaviors, values, and norms. This means that survey data can be used to study a wide variety of research questions. They can also be analyzed in a variety of ways, some of which are more appropriate than others.
Participants will develop specialist knowledge about a range of issues, including different sources of bias, response psychology, measurement theory, and non-response. They will also gain first-hand experience of survey analysis using a variety of applied techniques.
By the end of the course, participants will have a greater ability to critically evaluate survey-based research, including both academic and non-academic publications. In addition, the course will provide a dynamic environment in which to develop a range of practical and technical skills. This includes the ability to design high-quality surveys, and the confidence to analyze and interpret complex survey data using different statistical approaches. The aim is that participants will continue to benefit from the course throughout their careers, whether as users or producers of research.
This course is about the mathematics underlying the modeling of financial markets and the theory of risk-neutral valuation in discrete as well as in continuous time.
The course starts with a review of necessary probability background, which includes properties of random variables, expectation, conditional expectation and stochastic processes. To motivate the continuous-time theory, the course develops the concepts of no-arbitrage, replication and martingale probability measures in the context of the binomial tree model. Examples of pricing and hedging various derivatives are worked out in detail.
The course next moves to the mathematical theory of martingales in continuous time and the standard one-dimensional Brownian motion. The fundamental theory of stochastic integration with respect to a Brownian motion and Ito calculus is introduced. Furthermore, changes of probability measures and Girsanov’s theorem are studied.
Building on this background, the Black & Scholes option pricing theory is developed. In particular, the representation of European contingent claims’ prices as expectations with respect to the risk-neutral probability measure of the corresponding discounted payoffs is derived. Finally, pricing formulas and hedging strategies for European-type derivatives are established in terms of probabilistic expressions as well as in terms of solutions to partial differential equations.
The purpose of this course is to equip participants with the skills to be able to sensitively and critically design, carry out, report, read, and evaluate the quality of qualitative research projects.
It is taught by qualitative research experts who regularly use the methods they teach, making the course practical and realistic. It covers the full cycle of a qualitative research project: from design to data collection, analysis, reporting and disseminating. The course has the dual aims of equipping students with both conceptual understandings of current academic debates regarding different methods, and the practical skills to put those methods into practice.
This course is ideal for advanced undergraduates and postgraduates, as well as professionals with an interest in using qualitative methods to undertake social research.
Real analysis is the area of mathematics dealing with real numbers and the analytic properties of real-valued functions and sequences. In this course, we shall develop concepts such as convergence, continuity, completeness, compactness, and convexity in the settings of real numbers, Euclidean spaces, and more general metric spaces.
Real analysis is part of the foundation for further study in mathematics as well as graduate studies in economics. A considerable part of economic theory is difficult to follow without a strong background in real analysis. For example, the concepts of compactness and convexity play an important role in optimization theory and thus in microeconomics.
This course in real analysis is designed to meet the needs of economics students who are planning to study at postgraduate level as well as professionals who need to follow developments in economic analysis and research.
This course provides an overview of a variety of modern techniques for studying cause and effect with social science data. Combining basic statistical theory, principles of smart research design, and hands-on experience with real data, this course will give students a basis for being good consumers and practitioners of modern quantitative social science.
For most social science puzzles, we are interested in causal relations between variables rather than mere correlations. This course provides an introduction to modern statistical methods used for causal inference in the social sciences. Following a brief introduction to various philosophical approaches to causality, we focus for the remainder of the course on the potential outcomes framework, which is increasingly the lingua franca of causal analysis in the quantitative social sciences and related fields. Using this framework, we begin with experimental logic, presenting the randomized experiment as the gold standard for causal inference. Following this, we use the potential outcomes framework to apply experimental logic to a variety of common non-experimental (i.e., observational) settings. Observational designs covered include matching, instrumental variables, difference in differences, synthetic control, and regression discontinuity.
Using an example-based approach, the course illustrates that most problems of causal inference revolve around the concept of dealing with confounding explanations, i.e., alternative explanations for the relationship we are interested in, based on factors that have not been accounted for in our analysis. Confounding factors are extraneous to the theoretical relationship of interest but may incorrectly make it appear that a putative cause is associated with an effect. The research designs presented in this course offer alternative strategies for dealing with confounders, depending on the theoretical form that they take and what we can and cannot observe. In the process, we touch on a variety of threats to inference including noncompliance in randomized experiments, nonignorable treatment assignment in observational studies, covariate imbalance, and spillover, as well as additional issues of the balance between internal and external validity.
Lectures are complemented with computing exercises using real-world data and the statistical software R.
The course is aimed at third-year undergraduates, postgraduates, and interested professionals.
Data Science and Big Data Analytics are exciting new areas that combine scientific inquiry, statistical knowledge, substantive expertise, and computer programming. One of the main challenges for businesses and policymakers when using big data is to find people with the appropriate skills. Good data science requires experts that combine substantive knowledge with data analytical skills, which makes it a prime area for social scientists with an interest in quantitative methods.
This course integrates prior training in quantitative methods (statistics) and coding with substantive expertise and introduces the fundamental concepts and techniques of Data Science and Big Data Analytics.
Typical students will be advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students from any field requiring the fundamentals of data science or working with typically large datasets and databases. Practitioners from industry, government, or research organizations with some basic training in quantitative analysis or computer programming are also welcome. Because this course surveys diverse techniques and methods, it makes an ideal foundation for more advanced or more specific training. Our applications are drawn from social, political, economic, legal, and business and marketing fields.
This is a self-contained introduction to statistical methods in risk management. This course combines theory and implementation and emphasizes hands-on experience working with real financial data.
The implementation of sound quantitative risk models is a vital task for all financial institutions, and this trend has accelerated in recent years after the last financial crisis. This course provides a self-contained introduction to both theoretical and practical implementation of various techniques in risk management. We draw on diverse quantitative disciplines, from probability to statistics, from actuarial science to quantitative finance. Main topics include: risk factor models, risk measures and their statistical estimation, multivariate factor models, dimensional reduction techniques, copulas, measure of dependence on extreme events. We work with real financial data and aim to provide hands-on experience on practical applications.
This course is designed for third-year undergraduates, postgraduates, and professionals who are interested in analytical techniques in risk management.
For many companies, non-profit organizations, and political figures, success relies on understanding the “consumers.” What is it that they really want, and why? What information will they attend to, and what will they ignore? How do they make decisions, why do they sometimes make bad ones, and how can we help them make better ones? It can be tempting to answer these questions intuitively, based on one’s own experiences as a consumer. However, intuitions about human psychology are often wrong.
The course will provide an introduction to the basic theories for understanding consumer behavior. Different from traditional business management courses which often skim, we dig deeper into all the fundamental psychological theories so that students have a thorough understanding of the root theories on which many consumer insights are based.
Using a variety of methods, students will cover fundamental research pertaining to all four stages of the consumer experience;
The course will use concrete business case studies and examples (e.g. from the NYT, WSJ, FT, BBC and other current sources) for illustration and to apply the theories under examination. Since these theories apply equally to individual and group decision making situations, the material provides a useful framework for understanding related issues like managerial decision making as well as consumer behavior.
This course should be especially useful to people without the extensive previous study of psychology.
In October 2015, UN world leaders ratified 17 new Sustainable Development Goals for a socially and environmentally better world by 2030. This has encouraged a new generation of social entrepreneurs who contribute to this vision through innovative initiatives and by setting up new social businesses, NGOs, and social movements.
Based on recent leading-edge research, this course will give students the concepts, insights, and tools necessary to successfully start up, manage and scale-up innovative, sustainable businesses which are designed for social good.
This course has four key areas:
While the insights from this course on social innovation and entrepreneurship are more fundamental, the focus will be on emerging economies where social and environmental problems are most extreme, including South Asia, Africa, and South America. Interactive case studies form an integral part of the course; examining social innovations and their social impact in sectors such as solar energy, microfinance, gender and youth equality, mobile banking, e-education and more.
To stay relevant in today’s dynamic marketplace, companies must continually seek ways to generate new ideas and innovate in order to remain competitive. Open innovation is a fresh take on innovation whereby a firm looks beyond its boundaries to exploit the creative power of users, communities, and customers to co-develop new products, services, and processes. Whether it is the fortune 500 companies that have used open innovation to transform their businesses (e.g. Proctor and Gamble and IBM) or even start-ups (such as Istockphoto); Open Innovation, through tools like crowdsourcing or open sourcing is disrupting markets and altering the nature of industries.
This highly participatory and engaging course aims to inspire and empower students to lead or effectively engage in the practical design of open innovation projects, from ideation to implementation; through building or leveraging online communities. It combines cutting-edge open innovation theory (grounded in network, economic and organizational behavior perspectives) with practical application strategies and will include training from industry experts who implement Open Innovation to transform businesses. Case studies and a group project will allow students to sharpen and synthesize all these insights and bring to life issues like motivating and incentivizing crowds, aggregating crowd data, attaining a wise crowd and the limitations of utilizing crowds.
Exploring Open Innovation
Executing Open Innovation
Enhancing Open Innovation
By the end of this course, students will be able to
The course also integrates and deepens one’s knowledge, insights, and Open Innovation skills through the design and implementation of an Open Innovation group project.
This is not a technical course, so it does not require knowledge of coding or complex technologies. However, students must have the willingness to implement a group project using simple collaborative platforms and alter strategies when the desired results are not being achieved.
Following a long period of deregulation and market liberalization, there is an increasing realization today that the relationship between markets and states is one of partnership rather than antagonism.
Business needs government to harness local comparative advantages and national competitiveness; and governments need business to create wealth, jobs and economic prosperity.
The course examines analytically and empirically the industrial and related policies aiming to achieve this in the European context. Combining an accessible treatment of the theory of market regulation and industrial policy with an applied focus on industrial and development policies in Europe, the course offers an excellent introduction to some of the key policy questions concerning the management of economic development and challenges facing the European economies in the post-crisis era.
Recommended US semester credits: 3
This course is designed to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and analytical capabilities needed to practice excellent leadership within modern organizations.
The course explores the very nature of leadership. It addresses how individuals effectively build agreement to shared goals and courses of action, and also then facilitate organizational movement toward the achievement of these goals.
In particular, the course highlights theory and research that accounts for how leaders acquire and exercise social influence in a manner that contributes to their credibility and the motivation of their followers. It also makes note of individual differences in leader behavior and examines in what instances situations determine the salience of these differences. The emphasis of this intensive three weeks of study is on the application of theory, comparing and contrasting ideas, self-reflection, and self-discovery of one’s own leadership potential and strengths.
This course is an introduction to strategic thinking applied to managerial situations. By drawing simultaneously on the language and tools of game theory, economics and management, it develops a coherent and logical framework that helps analyze real-life business situations.
Following an introduction to game theory, oligopoly theory, and the psychology of intuitive decision-making, the course examines concrete business situations, including firm entry, research and development, and the design of markets. An emphasis will be placed on firm asymmetries and the emergence of core competencies. Real-life case studies will then be analyzed using the tools studied in the lectures.
The course provides a valuable complement to courses in business and corporate strategy and a less technical treatment of tools originating from an industrial organization and game theory. The overall aims of the course are to;
The course does not require extensive prior knowledge of mathematics, but students should possess the willingness and interest to analyze real-world problems using analytical methods and to acquire the tools necessary to do so.
This course is an introduction to strategic management of global firms. It studies the patterns of business globalisation and analyses successful strategies of firms facing the challenges imposed by the international integration of markets and production processes.
Topics include the changing structure of industries and the response of companies, both those based in the advanced industrial countries and those based in emerging markets, to increasing international competition and opportunities opened by international integration in terms of markets and efficiency gains. The content of the course reflects the increasing role played by emerging economies in international markets.
The issues will be approached by integrating conceptual, empirical and case methods. Particular emphasis will be placed on bringing these different perspectives together. The format of the course is highly participatory and interactive, and will involve a combination of case studies, interactive exercises, discussions and readings.
This course is an introduction to the strategic management of modern diversified firms. It studies how the firm’s portfolio of products and its internal organization can be designed to maximize corporate performance.
The course addresses the following questions facing modern managers:
The issues will be approached by integrating conceptual, empirical and case methods. Particular emphasis will be placed on bringing these different perspectives together. The course will only require basic mathematical knowledge but will call for rigorous reasoning. In the classes, students are expected to make presentations and to participate actively in the discussions.
This course discusses the main managerial and strategic aspects of online business.
It discusses the different e-business practices and challenges in Business-to-Consumer (B2C) and Business-to-Business (B2B); the effects of information and communications technologies on intermediation, value chain redesign and public and private procurement strategies. Economic theories, including transaction costs and principal agent, are used to discuss the impact of e-business on market configuration and network relationships. Strategies for e-business innovation including web 2.0 are also discussed.
The organization of contemporary economic activities and practices is profoundly affected by the increased use of e-business to support, enact and create new economic opportunities. Sufficient evidence has accumulated over the years for authoritative explanations to be given concerning the e-business phenomenon and its associated challenges.
This is a management information systems course, and not a technical course, and is mainly directed at undergraduate students. It focuses on the effective application of this powerful and pervasive technology in business. Internet-based systems have dramatically changed the way businesses operate and compete in the global marketplace and it is important for future executives and policy-makers to understand the implications of these changes. Students will gain a good understanding of how successful companies are taking advantage of e-business, as well as an understanding of the main challenges and risks associated with e-business models and strategies.
This is a supportive and challenging course aimed at those wishing to master the art of negotiation.
This intensive program is largely practical, and there will be three themes which run throughout it:
A focus on understanding one’s own negotiating style, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities (unknown strengths), and blind-spots (unknown weaknesses) using guided self-reflection, classroom exercises, and peer feedback.
Focus on diagnosing different negotiation situations, social contexts, and negotiation relationships with others, as well as learning how to figure out what others’ styles and motives are. Finding out how to use one’s own style, strengths, and weaknesses in the best way possible to fit different situations.
Master the use of one’s own style and strengths by engaging in negotiation exercises that increase in difficulty and intensity throughout the course. This expert-led three-week program is carefully designed to reinforce the learning so that it can be used outside the classroom setting.
The course is built on students conducting actual negotiations in nearly every session, and using the negotiation experience for group discussion and individual feedback.
Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to master the art of negotiation using the following five pedagogical elements:
Prerequisites: Students will need to fulfill ONE of the following two prerequisites: (1) Introductory negotiation course (to the level of MG209) and a university level introductory course in psychology, sociology, political science, management, or economics; OR (2) Evidence practical experience with negotiation that one has had on-the-job and/or in other professional capacities. Potential students should include in their application a brief summary (no more than one page) describing their negotiation experience. Note: Because this course is primarily practical, all students must already be familiar with basic negotiation concepts (e.g., BATNA, reservation point, integrative bargaining, expanding the pie, etc.).
This course covers advanced topics in financial accounting to enable a deeper understanding of the drivers of corporate profitability and the way it is communicated and evaluated by equity markets. Fundamentally, students should already have a (very basic) understanding of the what of financial reporting, and seek to expand their knowledge of the why.
The focus is mainly on the income statement and emphasizes the reporting, governance and communication of the company value creation process to external parties. The course starts with a discussion of the role of accounting in contracting and valuation. It then turns to revenue recognition, with a special emphasis on new IFRS and US GAAP standards, and expense/timely loss recognition. The course builds upon these topics by evaluating their role in earnings management and the measurement of earnings quality.
The course then focuses on corporate financial communication with equity markets, starting with the role of reported earnings among capital market participants and then covering in detail the key channels that firms use to communicate corporate profitability and sustainability. Special emphasis is placed on the moderating role of corporate governance and financial reporting regulation.
This course should hence appeal to students interested in equity research, fund management, financial communication consultancy, corporate governance and regulation.
Recommended US semester credits: 3-4
Contact Hours: 7.5
Decision making is a central aspect of virtually every management and business activity; important decisions are not only made by managers and entrepreneurs, but also by the consumers of their goods and services, and by their business rivals, partners, and employees. The ability to understand how decisions are made, and to predict, guide and improve those decisions, will be an invaluable part of every manager’s toolbox. It is this ability that will be developed in this course.
Some decisions are impossible to make analytically, for lack of time, data, computational ability, or awareness. These are situations that could put decision makers at risk of falling into systematic biases and errors. The first part of this course will raise one’s awareness about these ‘traps’ with a view to becoming a better intuitive decision maker.
Other decisions are made with and require extensive thought and analysis, as the stakes are high, there are multiple conflicting objectives to balance, and many sources of uncertainty about the future. These decisions are defined as strategic decisions and will be the focus of the second part of this course. Here students will learn how to become a better analytic decision maker: they will gain hands-on experience in structuring decision problems, identifying and representing strategic objectives and value trade-offs, as well as uncertainties and risks.
In lectures, students will engage with cutting-edge research in decision-making and analysis. In class, students will then investigate how it can be applied to both business and personal life.
Amongst the many topics considered will be:
Students will also learn how to use sound decision-making principles and simple decision-analytic tools to make better decisions. The course requires active participation in classroom activities that bring to life the principles being discussed.
How to choose in tough situations where stakes are high, and there are multiple conflicting objectives? What are the common ‘decision traps’ we fall into and how can we avoid them? Why do projects often take us longer and cost more than planned, and how should we get rid of this problem? How do we perceive risk, and how to act when there are risks and uncertainties involved in a decision? How can we create options that are better than the ones originally available?
Decision making is a central aspect of both everyday life and any business activity. The ability to understand how decisions are made, and to predict, guide and improve those decisions will be an invaluable part of every change maker’s toolbox. It is this ability that will be developed in this course, which introduces students to insights from behavioral science and decision analytics and its application to management and policy making.
Our journey will begin with an exploration of systematic biases and errors, to raise your awareness about these “traps” with a view to becoming a better intuitive decision maker. The adventure will continue with the discovery of both qualitative and quantitative solutions, that will equip you with a key analytical framework for successful strategic decisions.
Note: This course focuses on behavioral decision science. Students who are more interested in behavioral economics should consider EC200. Moreover, this course is an introductory course, tailored for undergraduates, or new graduates. If you are already familiar with decision science concepts and theories, or if you already have a few years of professional expertise, you are welcome instead to apply to the executive course Strategic Decision Making taught on the LSE Executive Education program.
London is a large city, so all students can expect to use public transportation (i.e. tube or bus) to move around the city on a daily basis, both getting to school and for social/cultural activities. It is a part of life in London. Generally, it will take students 20-45 minutes to get to school from their housing. All housing will be located in Zones 1 and 2 on the tube map.
Students will be housed in privately owned student accommodations, that include quality furnishings and areas for socializing. The kitchens are equipped with ovens, stoves, microwaves, and refrigerators. Meals are not included with London housing. Wireless Internet is provided in all flats. A weekly cleaning service is provided to the communal kitchen/living areas in all API London accommodations.
We are unable to take housing requests. Students will be placed in one of the following two options based on availability and their API program:
Lady Margaret – Kentish Town
The accommodation building is a 4-story, 8-bedroom period townhouse shared among 16 students in double rooms with two single beds in each room. All bedrooms have private bathrooms. The kitchen is a large, shared space with a seating area and TV. Cooking utensils and crockery are provided. Bed linens are also provided but towels are not. There is a free washer and dryer in the building. Students are responsible for cleaning their own bedrooms and bathrooms.
Lady Margaret is located on a quiet residential street within Kentish Town where there are numerous cafes, shops, restaurants, and pubs. All the benefits of the bustling, vibrant area of Camden Town are a short walk away, as are the delights of the large ancient park of Hampstead Heath. The accommodations are a 5-minute walk from the Kentish Town tube stop, where students are able to take the Northern Line into Central London. The travel time from Lady Margaret to the API office is 20-25 minutes, and the travel time to the Westminster Regent campus, Central Saint Martins, and London College of Fashion is 20-30 minutes. Past students have been pleased with this location, as it offers both a quiet neighborhood and easy access to Central London.
Acorn – Bloomsbury
The accommodation buildings are Georgian 18th-century townhouses and are laid out in flats, with 3-11 students within each flat. Standard rooms will be doubles or triples within a co-ed flat or on a co-ed floor. There are no single rooms available at this housing. Each flat will have a fully equipped kitchen, including crockery and utensils. Bed linens and towels are provided and there are free laundry facilities in all buildings.
These accommodations are situated on the Duke of Bedford’s Estate, between Russell Square and Bloomsbury Square and within walking distance of the many attractions of London’s West End including just a 3-minute walk to the British Museum and the API office. There are numerous shops, restaurants, bars and pubs within close proximity to the flats. The travel time from Acorn Bloomsbury to the API office, as well as FSU, is a 10-minute walk, and the travel time to the Westminster Harrow campus is a 45-50 minute tube ride. The travel time to most UAL campuses is 15-20 minutes.
Acorn - Clerkenwell
Acorn Clerkenwell accommodations are laid out in flats with 6 students per flat. Standard rooms will be doubles within a co-ed flat or on a co-ed floor. There are no single rooms available at this housing. Each flat will have a fully equipped kitchen, including crockery and utensils, and living room. Bed linens and towels are provided and there are free laundry facilities in all buildings.
These accommodations are situated in the arty and popular area of Clerkenwell in Central-East London. The Barbican Centre, Museum of London and Charles Dickens Museum are just some of the attractions naerby and you can see St Paul's Cathedral from your doorstep. There are numerous shops, restaurants, bars and pubs within close proximity to the flats. Farringdon underground station is located 0.3 miles away, which is served by the London underground and national rail services. Central London is only a 20 minute walk away and most Westminster, UCL and UAL campuses are a 30 minute walk or 15 minute tube or bus ride.